Chauffeured vehicles have been around since the 1700s (chauffeured, meaning the driver is in a separate compartment from their fare). Back then, though, limousine services were merely a carriage being powered by a horse or two, and were reserved for the very wealthy or important. Today, chauffeured vehicles, particularly limousines, are used to transport anyone, from bridal parties, to prom dates, to movie stars, and even the President of the United States.
Speaking of POTUS, the sanctioned limo of the President, which is referred to as The Beast, is a custom built behemoth that is a bit fancier than the ones you and I ride in. Stylized after a Cadillac, The Beast is heavily armored with steel (around and below in case of roadside bombs), titanium, aluminum, and ceramic, has eight inch thick doors, and even stores an extra supply of blood from the President in case of emergencies. The Beast is also perfectly sealed in case of a biochemical attack.
For the rest of us plebes, we usually associate chauffeured luxury limo service with Towne Cars that have tinted windows, or stretch limousines, which are traditionally black or white and have an extended chassis. (If we are lucky, the limousine services include free bubbly, too.)
In more recent years, limousine services have become more readily available. In addition to airport limousine service, limo service Lehigh Valley is often sought out as a safe (and fun) way to get from point A to point B without worrying about drinking and driving. These types of limousine services are particularly popular amongst bridal parties (weddings, bachelorette parties), family reunions, wine tours, or even just a night on the town.
The prices of limousine services vary, of course, according to duration, distance, and type of vehicle (there are so many styles of limos with so many new technologies to meet any preference). If you are interested in the Hummer stretch limo or a limo with a hot tub, for example (I will withhold judgement), you will pay a far heftier premium than for a standard Towne Car. Good references here.